30] However, the President continued to exercise “supervision and control” over the local governments. [34] The provision of the 1987 Constitution would serve as the legal precedent for the enactment in 1989 of two laws creating autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras. These included the organization of municipal and provincial councils based on general suffrage. Decentralization and democratization tend to reinforce each other; decentralization is a factor in increasing democratization while successful decentralization can only take place with democratic process. Although it is commonly assumed that the decentralization process in the Philippines is a complete break from the overly centralized past, evidences show that “the so-called landmark LGC of 1991 is not an abrupt break from the past but a result of a long struggle for decentralization and local autonomy. [31] Obviously, genuine autonomy could not be realistically implemented under the authoritarian regime. Edited: Morada, Noel. This shifting of powers is called Decentralization. Formal centralization continued during the brief Japanese occupation (1942 – 1945). c. LGU’s have corporate status and have the power to secure resources to perform the function. Decentralization and democratization tend to reinforce each other; decentralization is a factor in increasing democratization while successful decentralization can only take place with democratic process. Philippine politico-administrative history is replete with examples of tensions between a highly centralized governmental structure and the demands for autonomy among the various component local units: at one level, there is an imperative for a dominant and assertive leadership necessary for the consolidation and even the very survival of a weak state; at another level, there is demand among component local institutions for autonomy from the central government in order to enable them to become more responsive to situations obtaining locally and, paradoxically, strengthen a weak state. Notwithstanding the highly centralized dictatorial set-up, the 1973 Marcos Constitution rhetorically committed itself to a policy of local autonomy: The State shall guarantee and promote autonomy of local government units, especially the barrio, to ensure their fullest development as self-reliant communities. For example the health practitioners, they are now the responsibilities of the LGUs and be compensated with accordance of the Magna Carta involving heath services[41]Next are the problems which have something to do with personnel management, because some of them do not want to be directly under the control and supervision of the local executives, especially those devolved personnel from the national agencies. edited; De Guzman, Raul. [33] Furthermore, central-local relations in the Philippines before the declaration of martial law in 1972 differed from other developing Asian countries that were characterized by the widespread phenomenon of tight central control at the time. Despite the long tradition of decentralization in health care worldwide, there remains limited evidence on its impact on health outcomes. ”[22] Concerned with inefficiency and corruption in local governance, Americans tinkered with the liberal democratic system they introduced by moving toward centralization to prevent the “evils” of unrestricted and “untutored” Filipino rule. Devolution is a form of "administrative decentralization" wherein functions such as planning, decision-making, financing, and delivery of most health services … Cit. Edited: Morada, Noel. The draft constitution contained provisions guaranteeing local government autonomy, local power to create their own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, greater citizens’ draft IRP, meanwhile, strengthened the regions. [21] The American colonial period began with an emphasis on local self-government with the aim of building democracy from below. The Commonwealth period (1935-1946) saw local government in the Philippines placed under the general supervision of the President as provided for under Article VII Section II of the 1945 Constitution. Tadem, Teresa. The 1991 LGC is a product of both external factors, although internal factors play a stronger role in terms of the actual contents of the legal basis as well as the dynamics of its implementation. Barrios were to be governed by an elective barrio council. Then, in 1991, after almost five years of debate in Congress, the Local Government Code or RA 7160 was enacted. In the case of the Philippines, of the four given forms of decentralization, devolution is the prevalent form of decentralization used by the government. Obviously, traditional local politician saw the new benefits they would reap from devolution. ” “The ancestors of the Filipinos established an indigenous and autonomous political institution known as the barangay, which was composed of some thirty to one hundred households. Providing local governments with a just share of the national taxes which shall be automatically released to them. Decentralization is a strategy used by the government towards democratizing the political system and accelerating the attainment of sustainable development”[1] for the reason that it will promote or allow fuller participation of the citizens in government affairs and will give the local governments and the communities a more active role in the economic, social and political development [2]. For instance, the decentralization of administrative authority (but conspicuously unaccompanied by political decentralization) was a hallmark of the Marcos dictatorship. Tadem, Teresa. Deconcentration is the assignment of functions to ad hoc bodies and special authorities created in the region to render technical assistance on regional development. They were tools toward achieving democratization and vice versa. Before the 1970s the Philippines already had constitutionally differentiated provincial governments and a variety of elected governing bodies and officials at the city, municipal, and barrio levels. They are not to decide on their own. The Code was meant to be centerpiece of a government that came into power by overthrowing a dictatorship. Aside from the country’s geographic nature, which hindered the successful consolidation of all islands under the control of one government, the public officials were not yet properly trained or educated on the implementation of government’s policies and procedures to prevent unethical acts such as corruption and red tape. 16 students ordered this very topic and got original papers. Deconcentration is the assignment of functions to ad hoc bodies and special authorities created in the region to render technical assistance on regional development. Thus, he achieved great success in establishing central-local relations aimed at electoral objectives rather than promoting administrative effectiveness. In fact, before the enactment of the Code, local governments were beginning not only to be restive but also assertive, demanding that the umbilical cord that tied them to Manila be severed because this was the root cause behind their stunted growth and underdevelopment. The decentralization trend culminated in the inclusion of a separate article on local government in the draft of the new constitution and the draft Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP). [28] Ibid. Through community participation in decision making, planning, implementation and monitoring and backed by appropriate institutions and resources, it can go a long way in improving the quality of life, particularly of the poorer and marginalized sectors of the population, thereby alleviating poverty. Some commonly sited reasons are democratization increases efficiency and economic growth, improves supply and delivery of local services, vested interests of national politicians, preservation of national political systems in the face of growing local demands and general failure of centrist experiments. [29] The document likewise constitutionalized the taxing powers of local government units thus: Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes subject to limitations as may be provided by law. [9] Decentralization Towards Democratization ann Development in the Asian Pacific Region: Eastern Regional Organization for Public Organization (EROPA). Indeed, local governments in the Philippines are undergoing a fundamental structural and ideological transformation as a result of the devolution in 1991. [20] The American occupation of the Philippines (1902-1935) saw the promulgation of a number of policies promoting local autonomy. Local government units (LGU’s) are autonomous, independent and learly perceived as a separate level of government over which central authorities exercise little or no direct control. 1992 saw radical reform to local government in the Philippines through enactment of a new Local Government Code. Diliman, Quezon City, 1997, p. 98,99. Any fund or resources available for the use of local government units shall be first allocated for the provision of basic services or facilities. These included the organization of municipal and provincial councils based on general suffrage. This law is by far the most focused on devolution and democratic decentralization in the country. and lastly, involvement in the planning and implementation of development programs. [21] For the extensive and detailed discussion of these various initiatives, see Laurel, op cit. ”[16] Local discretion in the governance of local affairs was allowed only towards the end of the Spanish regime. Security, Unique of the Republic of the Philippines, otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991, is a broad legislative policy mandating the grant of comprehensive autonomy to local government units in the Philippines by devolving critical national government functions of delivery of services in agriculture, environment, health, and social SAMPLE. [25] During the 1934 – 1935 Constitutional Convention, emerging Filipino leaders were group into two camps: those who favor stronger local government, and those who consider state control more important than local governments. underdevelopment of local government unit in the Philippines. [38] Decentralization, Autonomy and the Local Government Code: The Challenge of Implememtation. Less than a decade later, the “Decentralization Act of 1967” (RA 5185) was enacted. The decentralization trend culminated in the inclusion of a separate article on local government in the draft of the new constitution and the draft Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP). A high point in the battle for devolution was the presidential veto of the proposed bill to recentralize health services. [22] Concerned with inefficiency and corruption in local governance, Americans tinkered with the liberal democratic system they introduced by moving toward centralization to prevent the “evils” of unrestricted and “untutored” Filipino rule. edited; De Guzman, Raul. The Philippine health care system has rapidly evolved with many challenges through time. 32] From the granting of formal independence in 1946 until 1972, the general trend had been toward the decentralization. President Aquino, civil-society groups, various leagues of local governments, and some national legislators genuinely felt that decentralization and local autonomy were more than administrative innovations. The code encourages the LGUs to be more entrepreneurial by providing them with opportunities to enter into joint ventures with the private sector, engage in the BOT arrangements, float bonds, and obtain loans from local private institution and the like. the code devolves or transfers the responsibility for the delivery of various aspects of basic services to the local governments. Edited: Morada, Noel. Different forms of decentralization can be distinguished primarily in terms of the extent of authority transferred and the amount of autonomy. In the case of the Philippines, of the four given forms of decentralization, devolution is the prevalent form of decentralization used by the government. [26] The year 1959 also saw the passage of landmark legislation as afar as local autonomy is concerned. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? But in the process, they turned a blind eye on the local elite who “enriched themselves at the expense of the peasants and increased their traditional power within the local communities. The states act inquisitive about holding their control and thus they emphatically stood up to the confirmation of a unused solid central government. can send it to you via email. Basic Services and Facilities. Edited: Morada, Noel. Philippines, 1995. p 2 [39] Philippine Politics and Governance: An Introduction. Government further assumes that through decentralization “development would be more responsive to the needs of the people and would create opportunities in the regions, promote employment and economic activities and as well strengthen people’s participation in the affairs of the government”[3]. Source of basic data: National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistical Coordination Board The Philippine economy’s output structure is characterized by a relatively large services sector. The first local autonomy act (RA 2264) was enacted in 1959, entitled, “An Act Amending the Laws Governing Local Governments by Increasing their Autonomy and Reorganizing Provincial Governments”. According to Tapales, the Spanish period had impacts, however, on the development of local governments in the Philippines. [32] From the granting of formal independence in 1946 until 1972, the general trend had been toward the decentralization. Reforma, Mila. Administrative decentralization can take effect without the necessity of legislation but with the issuance of an executive or administrative order. While this type of system generated its own benefits as well as problems, “the potential for continued development” that is not discernible everywhere in Asia existed in the Philippines. Decentralization may take the form of devolution and deconcentration. In 1898, against the backdrop of the Philippine Revolution against Spain, the first but short lived Philippine Republic under the Malolos Constitution was established. More specifically, this could be done through the following: First, sectoral representation in local legislative councils, particularly those represents women, worker, and other sectors as determined by the specific Sanggunian. dited; De Guzman, Raul. It is also considered the most important piece of legislation to emerge from the Aquino administration. There are mixed motives and a conjuncture of political factors in the decision to undertake decentralization. This could be done in different ways: 1) the shifting of the workload from a central government ministry or agency headquarters to its own field staff located in offices outside the national capital. These openings for civil society are meant to promote not only popular participation but also local accountability and transparency. According to Tapales, the Spanish period had impacts, however, on the development of local governments in the Philippines. Second, a high degree of centralization in the capital of Manila in Luzon came to characterize national-local relations for another century after the Spanish colonization. It is also considered the most important piece of legislation to emerge from the Aquino administration. Moreover, the present local government unit creates criteria according to the 1991 Local Government Code. The Maura Law of 1893 sought reforms in the local government system by granting greater local autonomy to towns and provinces in Luzon and Visayas and by allowing local citizens to select some of their officials. This transformation will be better appreciated within the context of decentralization, democratization and local empowerment. 28. “The Maura Law of 1893 sought reforms in the local government system by granting greater local autonomy to towns and provinces in Luzon and Visayas and by allowing local citizens to select some of their officials. The Payne-Aldrich Act of 1901, the Underground Trade Act of 1913, the Tydings-Kocial Kowski Act and Bell Trade Act were all aimed at enhancing the American benefits at the expense of the Filipinos. Government further assumes that through decentralization “development would be more responsive to the needs of the people and would create opportunities in the regions, promote employment and economic activities and as well strengthen people’s participation in the affairs of the government”[3]. Article 2 (Declaration of Principles and State Policies), Section 25, says: “The State shall insure the autonomy of local governments. This provided for the devolution of powers, resources and service functions from central government to local government. Significant legislative enactments include the Local Autonomy Act (Republic Act RA 2264), the Barrio Charter (RA 2370, later amended by RA 3590), and the Decentralization Act of 1967 (RA 5185). Local government units (LGU’s) are autonomous, independent and clearly perceived as a separate level of government over which central authorities exercise little or no direct control. Additionally, the President, by statute, could alter the jurisdictions of local governments and in effect, create or abolish them. Despite of this, decentralizing the government has been the best option to effectively implement government’s programs and policies, wherein the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays of the nation enjoys local autonomy which are then generally supervised by a central government. 2. All rights reserved. The barangay (renamed as barrio) remained as basic administrative units but other ties of local government were added: “the pueblos (municipalities), cabildos (cities), and provincias (provinces). Edited: Morada, Noel. In fact, before the enactment of the Code, local governments were beginning not only to be restive but also assertive, demanding that the umbilical cord that tied them to Manila be severed because this was the root cause behind their stunted growth and underdevelopment. 44, 1999 [20] Philippine Politics and Governance: An Introduction. Tadem, Teresa. For one, being in the frontline, they are regarded by many citizens as the government. Entitling local governments to an equitable shares in the proceeds of the utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas. President Quezon preferred to appoint the chief officials of cities and would brook no “democratize nonsense”. Edited: Morada, Noel. we might edit this sample to provide you with a plagiarism-free paper, Service But looking back in time, “before the arrival of Arab traders, scholars and the Spaniards in the sixteenth century, everything was local. The levels of the government include the provinces, cities, municipalities, and the village-level barangay. A lot of factors triggered such trend variation. The "International Seminar on Decentralization and Devolution of Forest Management in Asia and the Pacific," held in Davao, Philippines, from 30 November to 4 December 1998, explored experiences and issues surrounding the implementation of decentralization and devolution approaches in the region. b. LGU’s have clear and legally recognized geographical boundaries within which they exercise authority and perform public functions. dited; De Guzman, Raul. FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE, Local Goverment Administration and the 1976 Local…, Comparative Analysis of the Family Code and Code of…, Cultures and Practices Not Allowed in the Philippines, Zuni Public School Dist. Often these organizations have semi-independent authority to perform their responsibilities and may not even be located within the regular government structure[7]. Reforma, Mila. Decentralization has been carried out not solely for the traditional public administration arguments but, more important, in light of its democratic dimensions and other political considerations. According to de Guzman and Padilla, decentralization is the dispersal of authority and responsibility and the allocation of powers and functions from the center or top level of government to regional bodies or special purpose authorities, or from the national to the sub national levels of government. National government certainly still plays a critical role in the overall development process. Quezon believed that under a unitary system, the national chief executive should control all local offices. However, when it has not yet reached the level of being a chartered city, then, it still remains under the authority of the provincial government. Indeed, local governments in the Philippines are undergoing a fundamental structural and ideological transformation as a result of the devolution in 1991. This was expressed in the goals of the new administration’s development program (“the Policy Agenda for People Oriented Development”). 4. The authoritarian government promulgated the Local Government Code of 1983 (Batas Pambansa Bilang 337) which reiterated the policy of the State to guarantee and promote the autonomy of local government units to ensure their fullest development as self-reliant communities and make them effective partners in the pursuit of national development. First, there are practical and administrative reasons. Aside from the state-control bias of the 1935 Constitution, some writers also attribute the centralization trend to the strong leadership style of President Manuel Quezon. Please, specify your valid email address, Remember that this is just a sample essay and since it might not be original, we do not recommend to submit it. This failure is especially relevant in a diverse archipelago of thousands of islands. More important, subject to the new constitution’s imposition of term limits, members of the House of the Representatives were motivated by a desire to assume local government positions in the failure in an environment where significant powers and finances have been devolved to LGUs. It transfers the responsibility for the delivery of various aspects of basic services plus some regulatory and licensing powers to the local governments. [40] Democritization: Philippine Perspectives. Basic Services & Facilities. [27] More specifically, the Decentralization Act provided that it will: Grant local governments greater freedom and ampler means to respond to the needs of their people and promote prosperity and happiness to effect a more equitable and systematic distribution of governmental power and resources. Some commonly sited reasons are democratization increases efficiency and economic growth, improves supply and delivery of local services, vested interests of national politicians, preservation of national political systems in the face of growing local demands and general failure of centrist experiments. The result was that central supervision rapidly increased and was personally exercised by the president to a degree previously unheard of. Provides a range of interventions to individuals, families, and communities in crisis or difficult situations and vulnerable or disaster-affected communities. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. 17. 4. 3) Local administration, in which all subordinate levels of government within a country are agents of central authority, usually the executive branch[6]. Other pronouncements indicative of the thrust towards local autonomy included the following: the Instructions of President McKinley to the Taft Commission; the incorporation of the City of Manila (Act 183 of the Philippine Commission in 1902); the establishment of the Moro Province (act 787 in 1903); the organization of provincial governments (Act 1396 in 1905); and the extension of popular control, like the elimination of appointive members from the provincial board. It broadened the taxing powers of the cities and municipalities within the framework of national taxing laws. However, in the case of cities, higher-income cities are autonomous and classified as highly urbanized or chartered cities, while the rest are component cities that, like the municipalities, are under provincial supervision. [29]Brillantes cit. Decentralization is the transfer of planning, decision making, or administrative authority from the central government to its field organizations, local governments, and nongovernmental organizations as defined by Rondinellei and Cheema. edited; Legaspi, Perla. Tadem, Teresa. While the United States attempted to institute a new system, it ended up preserving much of the informal power structure and in ruling through the ilustrado and cacique classes. Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan (PAMANA) aims to improve access of poor communities to basic social services and promote responsive governance. The rights to voting have not always come so easy, there was once a time women and people of color could [...], Sometime recently coming into impact the US structure required approval by nine states. A broader, parallel political move in the Philippines also led to the enactment of a Local Government Code that led to the devolution of basic services, including health services. A Filipino basic need like water and electricity should be managed by the government because the role of the government is to serve the very interest of its people, and the people’s primary interest is to suffice their basic needs. Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? Passing on the big responsibility of health care to LGUs was done with noble intentions, but unfortunately, with inadequate preparation resulting in inappropriate … Its fundamental characteristics are: a. The Supreme Court also contributed to the cause of local autonomy by moving away t a liberal to a narrower interpretation of constitutional power of the president to supervise local governments. Lastly, d. Devolution implies the needs to develop local governments as institutions. Additionally, the President, by statute, could alter the jurisdictions of local governments and in effect, create or abolish them. This law is by far the most focused on devolution and democratic decentralization in the country. •Several basic services and facilities have been devolved to LGU: agricultural extension and on-site research, community-based forest projects, field health and hospital services, public works and infrastructure projects derived from local funds, school building programs, social welfare services, tourism facilities, housing projects for provinces and cities and such other services pertaining to industrial … Second, The Philippines undertook decentralization after the overthrow of Marcos for idealistic reasons. After the 1896 EDSA People Power Revolution toppled the Marcos dictatorship, the Philippine government headed by Corazon Aquino renewed its commitment to greater decentralization as a means of attaining its development goals and objectives. The Commonwealth period (1935-1946) saw local government in the Philippines placed under the general supervision of the President as provided for under Article VII Section II of the 1945 Constitution. Decentralization has been carried out not solely for the traditional public administration arguments but, more important, in light of its democratic dimensions and other political considerations. [30] Ibid. Municipal and then provincial elections were first introduced before national elections. ” There is also a separate State shall insure the autonomy of local government (Article 10) that is more extensive than its counterpart in he 1973 Constitution. [18] Philippine Politics and Governance: An Introduction. [29] The document likewise constitutionalized the taxing powers of local government units thus: Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes subject to limitations as may be provided by law. In addition, the 1935 Constitution formally created a very powerful Philippine president. According to Friedman, this difference sprang from the country’s colonial heritage and reflected formal, structural, alternatives, albeit unaccompanied by new conceptions of government. [37] These are as follows: 1. ) Thus, the trend during the Commonwealth period, the transitional government before the granting of independence, was centralization. Protective Services Program. Article 2 (Declaration of Principles and State Policies), Section 25, says: “The State shall insure the autonomy of local governments.
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